Romeo and Juliet

Hey! ¡hola! Bonjour! السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ! Hallo! Hajj! Before we dive into the wonderful world of Romeo and Juliet, here are some words that Shakespeare invented! Super Cool!: Shakespeare’s Words Now lets begin… Act 1 Prologue What is the place and setting of the play? The Prologue reveals the setting of the play. (Fun fact the town is located between Milan and Venice Italy.) What is the relationship between the two households?...

December 9, 2022 · 20 min · Michael & Aamir

  [draft]

Go back Barnardo Minor character Guard who kept watch for the ghost who he had saw

April 20, 2024 · 1 min · Aamir

Hamlet  [draft]

Background Elsinore Castle Home of the royal family in Denmark Well guarded, but not from the ghost Sentinel The position that stands guard at the gate Armor, Beaver, Truncheon Elements that help Horatio recognize king Hamlet Wittenberg City in Germany where Hamlet and Horatio go to school Expensive (home of the first printing press bible) Confession Religious ritual to clean the soul of sin Because the last king died without the chance to go through the ritual, he is doomed to punishment Similar to Polynesian need to be buried Arras The tapestry used in wall hangings and curtains Polonius hides behind one to spy on Gertrude talk with Hamlet The Mousetrap Play Similar to the mousetrap board game where you go piece by piece to trap the mouse Hamlet is doing this in the play to trap and test Claudius’s guilty conscience Recorder Wind instrument with a tube like shape and eight finger holes Chalice Cut that holds poison, intended for Hamlet Willow tree Where Ophelia falls to her death Symbol of weeping and love Skull The gravediggers give it to Hamlet As he is sitting there talking to this soal, you wonder whether he is actually acting weird as he told the others, or if he is actually going crazy Signet Seal that gives authoritiy to a document Hamlet uses it in is order of execution for Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Nunnery House for nuns, Hamlet orders Ophelia to go Elizabethan slang word Rapier Fencing sword with a poisoned blunt edge Themes Fate vs Free will Common theme in Shakespeare [[Hamlet]] questions weather it is better to act decisively or let nature take it’s course (follow the ghost) Asks if anything we do has a impact Madness [[Hamlet]] kills [[Polonius]] thinking he is [[Claudius]] His famous soliloquy “To be o not to be” is where ehe contemplates suicide and the meaning of life Hamlet tells [[Guildenstern]] that his is only mad sometimes, that he knows the hawk from a handsaw He pretends to be mad in front of Claudius and Polonius Hamlet follows the ghost [[Ophelia]] goes mad after her father’s death and Hamlet’s rejections She sings songs and gives flowers to people Revenge There are three young men who seek revenge for their fathers Foils for each other The play shows how they can act impulsively and blindly Death The ghost is the first thing we meet which is a depiction of death Symbol of disruption to the accepted social order “Somethings rotten in Denmark” King murdered, queen marrys in 2 months People are scared they are gonna be like Norway (king died, son takes over and goes to war) [[Hamlet]]’s indecision is reflected in the instability of Denmark Hamlet becomes fascinated by death When he discusses Polonius’s death body he says, “We eat in life, we are eaten in death” When burying Ophelia he talks to the skull Religion His “to be or not to be” soliloquy he decides not to kill himself because it is against his religion He doesn’t kill Claudius while he is killing because he thinks Claudius will go to heaven when he wants him to go to hell Protestant Reformation is currently happening when Sophocles was writing this Shakespeare (Protestant) might have started to question religion Lived in Wittenberg where the [[The Reformation Part 1#The Ninety five theses|Ninety-five thesis]] The Ghost is doomed to walk the earth which is purgatory a Catholic idea Lies and Deceit/Corruption Heath of a nation is connected to the legitimacy of the king Hitler External rot and internal rot is connected Ghost are a sign of bad things happening Gender/Women Gertrude and Ophelia are forced to do things to survived Their social position is based soly on their behavior Ophelia is forced to follow what her father says and spy on Hamlet Loses her sanity with the death of her father After this she is seen passing our flowers and signing nursery rhymes (her only purpose) Family Ultimate dysfunctional families Hamlet’s family Father dies Mother remarries quickly Claudius kills his brother for the thrown Hamlet is unable to act upon his father’s murder Polonius’s family Polonius forces Ophelia to choose whether Laertes leaves or Polonius dies Act 1 Scene 1 [[Barnardo]] arrives to replace [[Francisco]] who is standing at his post, Francisco gets scared Elsinore Castle, Denmark Bit of mystery, with Francisco getting scared Setting is creepy and cold Nothing happened while Francisco was at his post Barnardo asks Francisco to tell [[Horatio]] and [[Marcellus]] to help him if he sees them Francisco does see Horatio and Marcellus happen to come Marcellus asks if “this thing” appeared again, which Barnardo says it didn’t Marcellus says Horatio believes it’s in their imagination so that’s why Marcellus brought Horatio Marcellus says they saw it twice before Horatio doesn’t believe it will appear when [[The Ghost|the ghost]] appears Barnardo says it looks like the dead King of Denmark Horatio, like everyone else, every afraid, speaks to it asking it to speak The ghost moves away Horatio is very surprised at what just happened They describe the history of the former King of Denmark (rumeurs) The dead [[Late King Hamlet]] killed [[Late King Fortinbras]], the King of Norway By law, Late King Hamlet gets all of Fortinbras’s land [[Fortinbras]] is planning to take back his father’s lost lands in Denmark, resorting glory to Norway That is why there is a strict watch The ghost reappears, heads to Horatio, who asks it to use it’s voice and warn them what is going to happen to Denmark Dawn approaches with a rooster crowing just when the ghost was about to speak The ghost leaves Horatio tells Marcellus and Barnardo to come with him to tell [[Hamlet (character)|Hamlet]] what happened Says the ghost will talk to Hamlet (it’s son) Scene 2 [[Claudius]] the new king of Denmark speaks to his court Describes the death of his brother [[Late King Hamlet]] and how they will move on Tells the court he is aware of [[Fortinbras|Fortinbras’s]] plans....

April 20, 2024 · 17 min · Aamir

Ambitious Guest  [draft]

Ambitious Guest by Nathaniel Hawthorne https://www.commonlit.org/en/texts/the-ambitious-guest Footnotes represent notes that are answers to the questions linked. Story Lines 1-10 Everyone is gathered around a fire in the center of the house The environment is very comforting and warm1 They are surrounded by forest1 The house is located in a dangerous spot, right below a mountain that may cause falling rocks to “startle them at midnight”2 3 The area they are in the “Notch” is surrounded by “Maine” on one side and “Green Mountains” on another and “St....

March 12, 2024 · 2 min · Aamir

Antigone  [draft]

We never finished reading the play in class Rules of god vs Rules of man Lines 1-416 Polynices and Eteocles, the sons of Oedipus, have killed each other in their war Antigone and Ismene discuss the burial of Polynices as Antigone had promised Creon is now the king of Thebes Creon ordered that Polynices’s body would not be buried, left for animals to eat saying anyone who attempts to bury him would be stoned to death Antigone asks Ismene to help her bury Polynices Leaving the dead unburied is a god’s dishonor Ismene is scared of Creon’s rules and her sister’s rash words Ismene is the stereotypical Greek woman who is inferior to men and can’t think for themselves Ismene says she won’t help Antigone says she will do it no matter and mocks Ismene for not Antigone argues that burying Polynices is obeying the laws of the gods

March 5, 2024 · 1 min · Aamir

Oedipus at Colonus

Lines 1-576 It is years after Oedipus is banished from Thebes Colonus, ruled by the city of Athens Athens, named after Athena Oedipus is blind and looks pretty bad, lead by his daughter Antigone Tells her acceptance is a lesson taught by suffering, then asks her to find a place to rest Sees Athens in the distance and decides they are on holy ground, they rest there A citizen tells them to move from their resting place cause it is holy grounds The citizen tells them it is held by the Terrible Goddesses, Oedipus refers to them as Awesome Goddess due to ignorance Oedipus asks for him to send the king, Theseus promising of Theseus proves a small service, great good will come out of it This is explained in his prayer to the Furies He says that in the prophecy where Apollo foretold his fate, he also spoke of this place, the grove of the Furies, as the place Oedipus would die Oedipus says wherever he dies will receive a blessing Oedipus is gonna die soon More citizens search for him, the man who set foot on the grove of the Furies Oedipus steps out of the grove The chorus asks for his name and background Reluctantly, he tells his name The chorus is terrified and tells him to leave This is cause of the curse Oedipus put on himself: Everywhere he went he would not be welcome Antigone asks for the citizens pity and humanity Oedipus says they should not just drive him out because of his name, especially in Athens, a just city and protector of the weak The chorus decides to wait for the king to make the decision Ismene comes Reunites with Antigone and Oedipus after a while Delivers news: Oedipus’s two sons are fighting for control of Thebes The younger son, Eteocles, seized the throne from and exiled the elder son, Polynices Polynices fled to Argos and now is raising an army to attack Thebes, where Eteocles and Creon rule jointly Oedipus’s daughters are faithful while his sons are the opposite Ismene also tells there is a new prophecy from the oracle saying the men of Thebes who cast him out will try to bring him back and that Oedipus’s presence just outside a city would protect that city Ismene tells the sons already know about the prophecy Oedipus asks whether he will get a proper burial which she answers he would not because he killed his own father A proper burial is necessary to go to the underworld Ismene is acting as a spy, snooping around and telling what she hears Oedipus is furious Promises never to return to Thebes His sons never helped him after his downfall Tells the chorus if they defend him from the Thebans, he will choose to die there, giving them a blessing The leader of the chorus appreciates his offer, but says they have to preform a ritual to make the Furies happy cause Oedipus stepped on their land First he must gather holy water from a spring that runs forever, keeping it clean using the bowls of a craftsman with the rim and handles covered with wool just from a young lamb Then he must pour out the 3 holy water bowls facing the east Then he must fill the third with water and honey but no wine Then he will take 27 sprays of olive hand following hand and lay them there with a prayer Ismene says she will go and preform the rites while Antigone will watch over Oedipus Lines 577-1192 The chorus asks him to tell his story He doesn’t want to talk about it Ends up telling that daughters are also his sisters, that he married his mother and killed his father Defends himself saying he didn’t know his true mother and true father Theseus arrives Asks why he is there Oedipus appreciates Theseus strength to the point attitude, not asking to explain his life again and tells he has brought a gift Says if Theseus agrees to bury him at Colonus, Athens will be protected Theseus agrees He agrees to let Oedipus be buried in Colonus, the Thebans wanted to bury him outside the city Oedipus warns he will have to defend him from the Theban people who will try to capture him Theseus asks why he doesn’t like Thebes so much, Oedipus responds by describing his quick exile and how little pity they showed for him Oedipus finished by saying only the gods can be trusted, and they have promised to protect the city he is buried in Oedipus is not happy by how the Thebans want to exploit him instead of letting him back in Theseus says Oedipus can live in Athens or remain in Colonus, saying he is safe and won’t be taken away Theseus upholds Athens’s reputation as a protector of the weak The chorus praises Oedipus’s new home, Colonus of Athens Admires its horses and natural beauty Mentions the favor that Poseidon had bestowed upon it Antigone notifies everyone that Creon is coming with his bodyguard Creon says he comes in peace and tells Oedipus that his whole people summon him home Oedipus goes on a long rant about how Creon wouldn’t exile him when he wanted to be exiled, then when he wanted to come home, wasn’t allowed and now, when Oedipus is happy in Athens, Creon wants to take him again Creon says Oedipus is a disgrace to old age Creon orders his guards to take Oedipus’s two daughters, the Chorus can’t stop him The Chorus tries to block Creon from leaving Creon threatens to forcefully take Oedipus as well Chorus calls for help Theseus arrives with a armed escort Oedipus explains to him what happened Theseus quickly organizes people to chase Creon down saying it is against the law and he wouldn’t do the same to Thebes Upholding his promise to protect Oedipus Creon believes he is not in the wrong cause he still thinks Oedipus is a really bad guy Creon: “A man’s anger can never age and fade away not until he dies....

March 3, 2024 · 8 min · Aamir

Oedipus Rex

Also called Oedipus the King Lines 1-340 The play starts in the royal house of Thebes Oedipus had killed the Spinx years ago and has been king of Thebes since But he doesn’t know he killed is father and doesn’t know he married his mother Priests enter saying the city is sick with plague Crops are ruined, cattle are sick, women die in labor and children are stillborn, and people are perishing from the plague The priest begs Oedipus to save Thebes, just as Oedipus once saved it from the Sphinx Everyone believes Oedipus is a true hero, Oedipus knows this and thinks very highly of himself Creon, his brother-in-law, to the oracle at Delphi Oedipus had sent Creon, his brother-in-law to ask the oracle for advice Creon tells all the priests what Apollo, though the oracle of Delphi said He says before Oedipus became king, the earlier king, Laius, was murdered He says the murder was never discovered and to stop the plague the murderer must be hunted down and punished Creon tells Oedipus in regard to the circumstances of Laius’s death, Laius left the city to consult the oracle Only one eyewitness survived who returned to Thebes This man claimed that a band of thieves killed the king They says they haven’t tried to find the killer because they were too busy dealing with the Sphinx Oedipus promises to find the murderer The Chorus who had not heard of this, sings They call upon the gods to help the city They mention Zeus, Apollo, Athena, Artemis, and Dionysus....

March 3, 2024 · 7 min · Aamir

Oedipus Intro

Theater of Ancient Greece Gods were characters determining fate of mankind, reflecting religious beliefs Stopped business and daily activities for week long festivals Citizens were expected to attend and participate Learned valuable lessons from the play Accommodated at least 15,000 people Week long festivals (with play competitions) City Dionysia (largest and people came from other city-states) Lenaea (more local audience) Rural Dionysia (competition outside of the city) Acting Traditions The Chorus 15-50 men Unpaid, trained and costumed Link to audience, tells the audience how to respond creating mood Transition from Chorus to Actor “Chanted” lines as one chorus Thespis (name coming from the word meaning actor) speaks words of a god Actor Highly regarded in society (powerful) Gestures for emotions: Lowering head (grief) Beating breast (mourning) Stretching out arms (prayer) Costuming Actors played more than one role so to switch between roles, they changed outfits but most importantly, masks Beautiful masks = tragic; bizarre = comedic Gods or kings needed to be larger than life so they wore large robes Aspects of Oedipus The Sphinx What creature walks on four legs at dawn, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening?...

February 22, 2024 · 5 min · Aamir

Mass Relations in Chemistry

Chapter overview Using abundance Nitrogen-14 - 14003074amu - 99.632% Nitrogen-15 - 15.00109amu - 0.0368% \((14.00307\cdot0.9623)+(15.00019 \cdot0.00368)=13.95154+0.0552004\) 14.007amu Mole Avogadro’s Number: The number of parts of a mole 6.02x1023 Used to count things that are small For a element: a mole is the atomic mass in grams For a compound: a mole is the formula mass in grams Molar mass: the mass of a mole of elements, grams Molar mas practice $$1\ mol\ S = 32....

February 11, 2024 · 4 min · Aamir

Into the Wild

Chapter 1 The book starts with a postcard to Wayne Westerberg from Chris saying he might not hear from him again because he is going to ‘walk into the wild’ Jim Gallien is taking him to the edge of the forest to live off the land Chris lacks the necessary equipment but seems self confident Calls himself Alex but is a really nice guy Gallien gives him some food and work boots Thinks when Chris gets hungry he will just come out of the woods Chapter 2 Six people in three different parties find this city bus off the Stampede Trail in Denali National Park A couple is standing there one one group comes in horrified at a sos note on the side of the bus A camera with five rolls of exposed film, the SOS note, and a diary, written on the pages of a field guide to edible plants Chris’s body is so thin they believe starvation killed him Chapter 3 Grain elevator operator Wayne Westerberg picks up Chris on his way to Carthage, South Dakota Chris works for Wayne for a bit Wayne finds on Chris’s tax records that his name is Chris and not Alex which which is what he was told Wayne gets thrown in jail Gives Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace Krakauer reveals that Chris is not southern born as he tells everyone, but is a son of a aerospace engineer, Walt, and his business partner wife who raised their family in Virginia Chris, refused to take his parents offer of them paying for law school and took his car “to disappear for a while” After Walt and Billy don’t see chris for a while, they go down to where they think he is and see his apartment for rent and when they go back, all their letters to him returned in a bundle Chris instructed the post-office to hold his mail for a month Chapter 4 Chris drives off road and when a thunderstorm makes the engine wet, he thinks the car is broken and abandons it Burns all his money Abandons the car because he feels like he needs to break the rules instead of telling authority He walks through the desert without water and almost dies from heat stroke Hitchhikes from Lake Tahoe to Oregon Works on a ranch for a bit for “Crazy Ernie” but leaves when he realizes he was not going to be paid On the highway, Jan Burres and her boyfriend Bob take Chris....

February 10, 2024 · 13 min · Aamir