Biochemistry is the branch of science concerned with the chemical and physicochemical processes and substances that occur within living organisms.

The three Subatomic particles.

Found in the nucleus of an atom, the clump in the middle. It has a positive charge. Remember, the Proton has a Positive charge. The number of protons an atom is represented by its atomic number. If it has 3 protons, then it has an atomic number of 3. The protons also is used to calculate the atomic mass of an element. This represents the weighted average of all the elements isotopes. It is calculated by taking the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
Mixed with the protons in the nucleus. It helps hold the atom together. Although the name makes it sound like it has a negative charge, it has a neutral charge. Remember the Neutron has a Neutral charge.
Sometimes an atom will have the incorrect number of neutrons, this makes that atom an isotope. Remember how neutron’s main purpose was to hold the atom together, and it doesn’t affect the main function of the atom like the proton? Well it makes sense that if an atom loses a neutron or has too many, the atom will just become unstable or radioactive it won’t change its function.
These are the things that orbit the nucleus. They have a negative charge. There are three rings. The closest one to the nucleus can hold a maximum of 2 electrons. The next one can hold up to 8 electrons and so can the last ring.

Attraction and bonds

Cohesion is the attraction of molecules of the same substance. How to remember Cohesion?: Use a story: I and my COmpanion are the same. The “CO” in Cohesion is the same as the “CO” in Companion.
Adhesion is the attraction of molecules of different substances. Way to remember Adhesions?: I use ADhesive tape. You usually use tape to attach two different things together. Another example is: water sticking to a window. The water is sticking to the glass, these are two different substances attracted to each other.
Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force is the slight attraction that develops between oppositely charged regions of molecules. How to remember Van der Waals force: Two oppositely charged molecules attract to each other, like a magnet. (+ and –) The more molecules that are close to each other, the more Van der Waals force
Polar covalent bond
A polar covalent bond is the uneven sharing of electrons between two atoms. How to remember A polar covalent bond?: A story: Santa unevenly shared the presents. Santa lives in the North “Pole.”
Non-polar covalent bond
A Non-polar covalent bond is the equal sharing of electrons between two atoms. How to remember Nonpolar covalent bonds?: Santa shares his presents equally. Remember this vocab word by knowing the opposite (Santa unevenly shared the presents (polar covalent bond)).

PNCL park

Monomers of PNCL
A Protein’s monomer is Amino acids, Nucleic acids is Nucleotides, Carbohydrates is Monosaccharide, and Lipids is Glycerol with a Fatty Acid
How to remember?
Proteins: A mean Cow. Cows have lots of protein. A mean sounds like Amino. Nucleic Acids: Nucleo is written the same as Nucleic. Carbohydrates: Knowing the simpler meaning of monosaccharides, one sugar, can be easier to remember. Lipids: Guys are fat. Glycerol starts with Guys. Fat is the same as Fatty Acid


Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur.
Phosphorus, oxygen, Nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen.
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
How to know the order of the elements are listed in
CHONS PONCH CHO CHO! And you can remember PNCL. You can remember this by PNC Park with L for loser. Chons-Protein Ponch-Nitrogen Cho-carbs cho-Lipids.
Saturated/Unsaturated fatty acid
Saturated fatty acids are acids full of Hydrogen atoms, and unsaturated is not full of hydrogens fatty acid


A substrate is the compound that the enzyme reacts with at the active site
The lock-and-key model states that the active site of an enzyme only fits a specific substrate.
Induced-fit model
The induced-fit model states the active site will change its shape to fit their substrate
What factors affect enzymes?
Temperature, pH, and pressure are all factors that can affect an enzyme
A reactant is an element or compound that enters a chemical rxn
A product is a element or compound produced by a chemical rxn
Denaturing of an enzyme
An enzyme is denatured when its shape is changed making them non-functional
Hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen atom bonds occur when a hydrogen atom covalently (share an electron) bonds to an oxygen or nitrogen atom
The pH of a solution depends on the concentration of H+ ions in that solution. The solution is acidic when it has a lot of H+ ions and is basic when it has more OH- ions